Category: Bibliography


Community of practice workshop reports:

In 2014 / 2015, UNHCR conducted a series of workshops  with the idea of building up a global community of practice on Urban Refugee matters. Below are the reports:

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UNHCR policies:

Policy on Alternatives to Refugee Camps, 2014

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UNHCR policy on refugee protection and solution in urban areas, Sept. 2009

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Concept paper, UNHCR dialogue 2009

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UNHCR policy on urban refugees, Dec. 1997
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UNHCR comprehensive policy on urban refugees, March 1997

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UNHCR policy and practice regarding urban refugees, 1995

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UNHCR urban policy evaluations:

The implementation of UNHCR’s policy on refugee protection and solutions in urban areas, 2012

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Evaluation of UNHCR policy in urban areas, 2011

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Evaluation of UNHCR policy in urban areas: report of a workshop, 2002

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No place to stay: a review of the implementation of UNHCR’s urban refugee policy in Bulgaria, 2011

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A way to San Jose: a review of the implementation of UNHCR’s urban refugee policy in Costa Rica, 2011

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Lives in limbo: a review of the implementation of UNHCR’s urban refugee policy in Tajikistan, 2011

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Designing appropriate interventions in urban settings, 2009

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A

Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal, Diana Glazebrook &, Gholamreza Jamshidiha (2005), Return to Afghanistan? A Study of Afghans Living in Tehran, Afghan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (2005), Afghans in Karachi: Migration, Settlement and Social Networks.

Ahmar, Moonish (2009), Sindh’s Ethnic Predicament and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs).

Ainsworth, Peroline (2007), Refugee Diet in a context of Urban Displacement, Forced Migration and Refugee Studies Program Working Paper No.8, American University in Cairo.

Ajygin, Erin (2010), Livelihoods and Family Formation among Eritrean Refugees in Cairo, Center for Migration and Refugee Studies, American University in Cairo.

Albuja, Sebastián & Marcela Ceballos (2010), “Urban displacement and Migration in Colombia”, Forced Migration Review, 34.

Alexander, Amy (2009), “Without refuge: Chin refugees in India and Malaysia”, Forced Migration Review, 30.

ALNAP & Provention Consortium (2009), Responding to urban disasters. Learning from previous relief and recovery operations.

Amara & Aljunid (2014), Amara & Aljunid_NC Diseases among urban refugees and asylum seekers in developing countries – a neglected health care need,  Globalisation and Health

Apraxine,Pierre, Anne Duquenne, Sabine Fetta & Damien Helly (2012), Urban violence and humanitarian challenges Joint Report, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the European Institute for Security Studies (EUISS).

Asylum Access, Boat People SOS & Conscience Foundation (2009), UNHCR Protection Challenges for Urban Refugees in Thailand: Report and Recommendations.

Ati, Sara Hassan Abdel, & Susanne Jaspar (2011), City limits: urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan – Port Sudan case study, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute.

Azorbo, Michelle (2011), Microfinance and refugees: lessons learned from UNHCR’s experience, New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper no 199, UNHCR.

B

Bailey, Sarah (2004), Is Legal Status Enough: Legal Status and Livelihood Obstacles for Urban RefugeesMA Thesis, The Fletcher School, Tufts University.

Basavapatna, Sahana (2009), Access to Health Care for Refugees in New Delhi, Refugee Watch Online.

Beall, Jo & Daniel Esser (2005), Shaping Urban Futures: Challenges to Governing and Managing Afghan Cities, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Belvedere, M. Florencia (2007), “Insiders but Outsiders: The Struggle for the Inclusion of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in South Africa”Refuge, Centre for Refugee Studies, York University and Queen’s University, vol. 24, no. 1: 57-70.

Bernstein, Jesse & Moses Chrispus Okello (2007), “To Be or Not To Be: Urban Refugees in Kampala”Refuge, Centre for Refugee Studies, York University and Queen’s University, vol. 24, no.1, pp. 46-56.

Beyani, Chaloka (2011), Rapport of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons

Biro, Peter (2012), Life on the Margins, International Rescue Committee.

Biro, Peter (2013), Hard living in the City, International Rescue Committee.

Bottinick, Larry & Areti Sianni (2010), No place to stay A review of the implementation of UNHCR‟s urban refugee policy in Bulgaria , UNHCR.

Branch, Adam (2008), Gulu Town in War… and Peace? Displacement, Humanitarianism and Post-War Crisis, Crisis States Research Centre, Development Studies Institute, London School of Economics.

Brookings Institution – University of Bern Project on Internal Displacement (2008), Addressing Urban Displacement: Specific Needs and Vulnerabilities, Summary Report of Seminar, March 10, 2008 Washington DC.

Brumat, Elisabetta (2010), “The poor and the displaced in Khartoum”Forced Migration Review, 34.

Buchanan-Smith, Margie & Helen McElhinney (2011), City limits: urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan – Nyala case study, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute.

Buscher, Dale (2003), Case Identification: Challenges Posed by Urban Refugees, NGO Note for the Agenda Item, Annual Tripartite Consultations on Resettlements, Geneva 18–19 June 2003.

Buscher, Dale & Lauren Heller (2010), “Desperate lives: urban refugee women in Malaysia and Egypt”Forced Migration Review 34.

Buscher, Dale (2011), Bright Lights, Big City: Urban Refugees Struggle to Make a Living in New Delhi, Women’s Refugee Commission.

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Campbell, Elizabeth H, Jean D’Arc Kakusu & Iddi Musyemi (2006), “Congolese Refugee Livelihoods in Nairobi and the Prospects of Legal, Local Integration”Refugee Survey Quarterly, 25: 93 -108.

Elizabeth Campbell & Patrick Duplat (2010), Somali Refugees: Protecting their Rights in CitiesRefugees International.

Campbell, Elisabeth (2010), Age, Gender, Diversity Mainstreaming Intitiative Key to Urban Protection, Refugees International.

Elizabeth Campbell, Jeff Crisp & Esther Kiragu (2011), Navigating Nairobi: A review of the implementation of UNHCR’s urb an refugee policy in Kenya’s capital city, UNHCR, Policy Development and Evaluation Service. www.unhcr.org/4d5511209.pdf

Charny, Joel (2008), World Refugee Day: Where are the world’s hidden refugeesRefugees International.

Chatelard, Géraldine (2009), Mobility Opportunities and Strategies for Iraqi Refugees in Jordan and Syria.

Chatelard, Géraldine (2009), Iraqis in Jordan: elusive numbers, elusive future.

Chen, Gregory (2004), Unseen, Unheard, Unaided: Urban Refugees in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants.

Coker, Elizabeth M (2004). “Dislocated Identity and the Fragmented Body: Discourses of Resistance among Southern Sudanese Refugees in Cairo”, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 7 (14): 401-409.

Corsellis, Tom & Antonella Vitale (2006), Exploring key Changes and Development in post disaster Settlement Shelter and Housing 1982–2006: Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster: Guidelines for Assistance. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN/OCHA).

Crawford, Kate, Martin Suvatne, James Kennedy & Tom Corsellis (2010), “Urban shelter and the limits of humanitarian action”Forced Migration Review, 34.

Jeff Crisp, Jane Janz, José Riera & Shahira Samy (2009), Surviving in the city: A review of UNHCR’s operation for Iraqi refugees in urban areas of Jordan, Lebanon and Syria

Crisp, Jeff (2010), “Surviving in the city” Forced Migration Review 34.

Crisp, Jeff & Hilde Reftsie (20110, The urbanisation of displaced people, CIVIS no 5, Cities Alliance.

Crisp, Jeff, Tim Morris & Hilde Reftsie (2012), “Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships”Disasters, vol. 36, special issue.

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Danielson, Nora (2012), Urban refugee protection in Cairo: the role of communication, information and technology New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper no. 236.

Danielson, Eleanor (2012), Field Report: Revolution, its Aftermath, and Access to Information for Refugees in Cairo

Darío, Rubén, Guevara Corral & Diego Andrés Guevara Flétcher (2010), “The journey towards social exclusion in Colombia”Forced Migration Review, 34.

Davies, Anne & Karen Jacobsen (2010), “Profiling urban IDPS”Forced Migration Review 34.

Delhaas, Rik (2006), ‘Forgotten and Marginalized’ Displaced Persons in Khartoum: One year after the peace agreement, Interchurch Organization for Development Co-operation (ICCO).

Dick, Shelly (2002), Liberians in Ghana: living without humanitarian assistance,New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 57, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR.

Doraï, Mohamed Kamel (2010), From Camp Dwellers to Urban Refugees? Urbanization and Marginalization of Refugee Camps in Lebanon. Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Dryden-Peterson, Sarah (2006), “I Find Myself as Someone who is in the Forest’: Urban Refugees as Agents of Social Change in Kampala, Uganda”Journal of Refugee Studies, September 2006; 19, pp. 381- 395.

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Edwards, Alice (2010), “‘Legitimate’ protection spaces: UNHCR’s 2009 policy”, Forced Migration Review 34.

Evans, Martin (2007), “‘The Suffering is Too Great’: Urban Internally Displaced Persons in the Casamance Conflict, Senegal”, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20 (1): 60-85.

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Fábos, Anita & Gaim Kibreab (2007), “Urban Refugees: Introduction”, Refuge, Centre for Refugee Studies, York University and Queen’s University, vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 3-10.

Fagen, Patricia Weiss (2011), Refugees and IDPs after Conflict: Why They Do Not Go Home United States Institute of Peace.

Ferris, Elizabeth (2011), Urban disasters, conflict and violence: implications for humanitarian work, Brookings Institute.

Ferris, Elisabeth (2011), Ten Observations on the Challenges of Humanitarian Work in Urban Settings, Brookings Institute.

Fielden, Alexandra (2008), “Ignored Displaced Persons: the plight of IDPs in urban areas”, Research Paper No. 16, New Issues in Refugee Research

Forced Migration Review, Adapting to Urban displacement, n° 34, Feb. 2010

Frischkorn, Rebecca (2008), “We Just Aren’t Free”: Urban Refugees Living in Lusaka, Zambia, unpublished conference paper, Society for Applied Anthropology 2008 Annual Meeting, March 25-29, 2008.

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Grabska, Katarzyna, (2009) With Mulki Al-Sharmani ‘Diasporic African Refugees: Ambivalent Status and Cosmopolitan Struggles in Cairo,’ in Singerman D. and Amar P. Re-making Cairo: Politics, Culture, and Urban Space in the New Globalized Middle East, Volume II, AUC Press.

Grabska, Katarzyna(2008) ‘Brothers or Poor Cousins? Rights, policies and the Wellbeing of Refugees in Egypt,’ in Grabska, K and Mehta. L (eds),Forced Displacement: Why Rights Matter?, Palgrave Macmillan: London.

Grabska, Katarzyna (2007) ‘Cities and refugees: Urban refugees in Cairo,’ book chapter in Human Security and Cities, edited and published by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, February. Accessible: http://humansecurity-cities.org/sites/hscities/files/Human_Security_for_an_Urban_Century.pdf

Grabska, Katarzyna(2006) ‘Marginalization in the Urban Spaces of the Global South: Urban Refugees in Cairo’ Special Issue: Urban Refugees, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 19, No.3.

Grabska, Katarzyna(2005) ‘Integration or co-existence – the forced and migrant experience in a delimitated territory of Arba W Nuss,’ In Kolor Review, May.

Grabska, Katarzyna (2006) ‘Who asked them (refugees) anyway? Rights, Policies and Urban Refugees in Egypt’, DRC research report, July, accessible www.migrationdrc.org

Grabska, Katarzyna (2005) ‘Living on the Margins – Livelihoods of Sudanese Refugees in urban settings, Egypt,’ Research Report and FMRS Working Paper, Forced Migration and Refugee Studies, The American University in Cairo. (June).

de Geoffroy, Agnès (2011) The Challenge of Protracted Displacement: The Case of Khartoum, Middle East Institute / Fondation pour la recherche stratégique.

Goździak Elżbieta M. and Alissa Walter (2012), Urban Refugees I n Cairo, Georgetown University.

Green, Duncan (2010), Why is humanitarian work so hard in cities?, Oxfam GB.

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Hadermann, Katrien (2008), Livelihood Assessment among Urban Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Malaysia OSTS UNHCR

Haysom, Simone (2011), Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Damascus – A desk study, HPG Policy Paper, Overseas Development Institute.

Haysom, Simone (2013), Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability – Final report, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

Haysom, Simone and Wasseem el Sarraj (2012), Sanctuary in the City? Urban displacement and vulnerability in the Gaza Strip, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

Haysom, Simone and Sara Pavanello (2011), Sanctuary in the City? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Damascus – A desk study, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

Herz, Manuel (2008), Somali Refugees in Eastleigh, Nairobi.

Holcroft, David (2012), Southern Africa: the rise of urban refugees, Jesuit Refugee Service.

Hovil, Lucy & Moses Chrispus Okello (2008), “The Right to Freedom of Movement for Refugees in Uganda”,

Human Rights Watch (2013), “You Are All Terrorists”: Kenyan Police Abuse of Refugees in Nairobi

Hunt, Taya (2010), Cambodia: resettlement no longer an option for urban refugees, Jesuit Refugee Service.

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Ibáñez, Ana María & Andrea Velásquez (2008), Public Policies to Assist Internally Displaced Persons: The Role of Municipal Authorities, Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2009) Peru:Reparations begin but IDPs excluded.

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2012), IDP Profiling Survey in Nairobi.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 2010, Final Strategy for Meeting Humanitarian Challenges in Urban Areas.

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) (2010), Theme Urban violenceInternational Review of the Red Cross, 2010, No. 878

International Council of Voluntary Organisations, (2008). Draft UNHCR Policy on Asylum-seekers and Refugees in Urban Areas Comments from NGOs.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2010, World Disasters Report 2010. Focus on urban risk.

International Organisation for Migration (2012), Report on Khyber Off-Camp IDPS IN Peshawar, Nowshera and Kohat – KP

International Rescue Committee (2012), The city is the new refugee camp.

International Rescue Committee (2012), In Search of Survival and Sanctuary, Refugees from Myanmar / Burma in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

International Rescue Committee and Women Refugee Commission (2013), Urban Refugee Research and Social Capital, A Roundtable Report and Literature Review

IRIN (February 2010), AID POLICY: Humanitarian agencies will have to go urban.

IRIN (April 2010), KENYA-SOMALIA: When a low profile is key to survival.

IRIN (April 2010), KENYA: Illegal refugees miss out on HIV services

Ittig, Anna (2005) Urbanising Kabul

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Jacobsen, Karen (2004), Just Enough for the City: Urban Refugees Make their Own Way

Jacobsen, Karen (2006), “Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Urban Areas: A Livelihoods Perspective”, Journal of Refugee Studies, 19: 273-286.

Jacobsen, Karen (2008), Case 1: Khartoum, Sudan, Internal displacement to urban areas: The Tufts-IDMC profiling study, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University in collaboration with Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.

Jacobsen, Karen (2008), Case 2: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, Internal displacement to urban areas: The Tufts-IDMC profiling study, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University in collaboration with Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.

Jacobsen, Karen & Kimberley Howe (2008), Internal Displacement to Urban Areas: the Tufts-IDMC Profiling Study Santa Marta, Colombia: Case 3, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University in collaboration with Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.

Jaji, Rosemary (2009), “Masculinity on Unstable Ground: Young Refugee Men in Nairobi, Kenya”Journal of Refugee Studies, 22(2): 177-194.

Jeene, Harry & Angela Rouse (2010), “Hosting ‘the enemy’”Forced Migration Review 34.

Jesuit Refugee Service (2012), Southern Africa: the rise of urban refugees.

Jinnah, Zaheera with Rio Holaday (2009), Migrant Mobilisation: Structure and Strategies in claiming rights in South Africa and Nairobi, University of the Witwatersrand.

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Kagan, Micheal (2012) The UN ‘Surrogate State’ and the Foundation of Refugee Policy in the Middle East, UC Davis Journal of International Law and Policy

Kagan, Michael (2011), We live in a country of UNHCR:” The UN surrogate state and refugee policy in the Middle East, New Issues in Refugee Research Paper No. 201, UNHCR Policy Development and Evaluation Section

Kagan, Michael (2011), Shared responsibility in a new Egypt: A strategy for refugee protectionAmerican University in Cairo Center for Migration and Refugee Studies (2011)

Kagan, Michael (2007), Legal Refugee Recognition in the Urban South: Formal v. De Facto Refugee Status, 24:1 Refuge: Canada’s Periodical on Refugees 11-26

 Kakuma News Reflector – A Refugee Free Press (2009), Urban Refugees are a Reality, Volume 1, Issue 4-5 /

Karanja, Lucy (2010), A Report on the Education of Urban Refugees in Nairobi, Kenya.

Kibreab, Gaim (2007), “Why Governments Prefer Spatially Segregated Settlement Sites for Urban Refugees”, Refuge, Vol 24, No 1, York University.

Kobia, Kofi and Cranfield, Leilla (2009), Literature Review: Urban Refugees, Refugees Branch, Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Koscalova, Alena & Elena Lucchi (2010), Evaluation Report on the MSF Response to Displacement in Open Settings “Leaving the camp paradigm…”.

Krause-Vilmar, Jina (2011), The Living Ain’t Easy: Urban Refugees in Kampala, Women’s Refugee Commission.

Krause-Vilmar, Jina & Josh Chaffi (2011), No Place to Go But Up: Urban Refugees in Johannesburg, South AfricaWomen’s Refugee Commission.

Krause-Vilmar, Jina (2011), Dawn in the City: Guidance for Achieving Urban Refugee Self-Reliance, Women’s Refugee Commission.

Kronenfeld, Daniel A. (2008), Afghan Refugees in Pakistan: Not All Refugees, Not Always in Pakistan, Not Necessarily Afghan?Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 21, issue 1, pp 43-63.

Kruchik Krell, Andrea (2011) The impact of Microfinance on African Refugees in Urban areas, Congolese Refugee Women in Tel-Aviv

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Landau, Loren B. (2006) “Protection and Dignity in Johannesburg: Shortcomings of South Africa’s Urban Refugee Policy”Journal of Refugee Studies. Vol. 19, issue 3, pp. 308-27.

Lester, Eve (2005), “Work, the Right to Work, and Durable Solutions: A Study on Sierra Leonean Refugees in The Gambia”International Journal of Refugee Law, 17(2): 331-393.

Lewis, Jim (2008), “The Exigent City”New York Times Magazine, June 8, 2009,

Lewis, Themba (2009), “Sudanese refugee youth ‘gangs’ in Cairo”Forced Migration Review

Luchi, Elena (2012), “Moving from the ‘Why’ to the ‘How’: Reflections on Humanitarian Response in Urban Settings,” Disasters, vol. 36, issue suppl. 1

Lyytinen, Eveliina (2009), “A tale of three cities: internal displacement, urbanization and humanitarian action in Abidjan, Khartoum and Mogadishu, Research Paper No. 173 New Issues in Refugee Research

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Maddah, Samaneh (2008),Afghan Refugees Caught Between a Rock and a Hard Place,

Madmouj, Rawand (2008), Livelihoods Assessment and Strategy Development for Refugees in Basateen urban area and Kharaz camp-Yemen, UNHCR and International Labour Organization.

Mallett, Richard (2010), “Transition, connection and uncertainty: IDPs in Kampala”, Forced Migration Review, 34.

Marfleet, Philip (2007), “‘Forgotten, ‘Hidden’: Predicaments of the Urban Refugee”, Refuge, Centre for Refugee Studies, York University and Queen’s University, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 36-45.

Martin, Ellen & Nina Sluga (2011), Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Yei, South SudanHPG Working Papers, Overseas Development Institute.

Martin, Ellen & Irina Mosel (2011), City limits: urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan – Juba case study, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute.

Maxwell, Laura & Aya El-Hilaly (2004), Separated Refugee Children in Cairo: A Right-Based Analysis, Forced Migration and Refugee Studies Program Working Paper No.5, American University in Cairo.

Metcalfe, Victoria & Simone Haysom, with Ellen Martin (2012), Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Kabul, HPG Working Paper, Overseas Development Institute.

Metcalfe, Victoria and Sara Pavanello, with Prafulla Mishra (2011), Sanctuary in the City? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Nairobi, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

Millo, Yiftach (2012), Invisible in the City: Protection Gaps Facing Sexual Minority Refugees and Asylum seekers in Urban Ecuador, Ghana, Israel and Kenya, Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society.

Minnick, Emilie & Noheier Nashaat (2009), Stuck” in Egypt: Iraqi refugees’ perceptions of their prospects for resettlement to third countries and return to Iraq, Forced Migration and Refugee Studies Program, American University in Cairo.

Minnick, Emily (2009), Between Return and Resettlement: The formation of Iraqi Refugee ‘communities’ in Cairo and Amman, Center for Migration and Refugee studies, American University in Cairo.

Misago, Jean Pierre with Loren B. Landau and Tamlyn Monson (2009), Towards Tolerance, Law, and Dignity: Addressing Violence against Foreign Nationals in South Africa,Research conducted for the International Organisation for Migration by the Forced Migration Studies Programme at the University of the Witwatersrand.

Morand, MaryBeth, Katherine Mahoney with Shaula Bellouir and Janice Rabkin (2013), The Implementation of UNHCR’s Policy on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas Global Survey – 2012

Monson, Tamlyn, Vicki Igglesden &Tara Polzer (2009), Humanitarian Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons in South Africa: Lessons Learned Following Attacks on Foreign Nationals in May 2008, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand.

Montemurro, Marzia & Nadine Walicki (2010), “Invisibility of urban IDPs in Europe”, Forced Migration Review 34

Morris, Tim (2010), “Urban Somali refugees in Yemen”Forced Migration Review, 34.

Morris, Tim (2009), Yemen’s forgotten refugee crisis,Comment is free, The Guardian

Mosel, Irina and Ashley Jackson (2013), Sanctuary in the city? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Peshawar, Pakistan, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

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Near East Foundation, Economic Assessment: Opportunity and Constraints for Vulnerable Women and Youth in Zarqa, JordanMarch 2014

Nah, Alice (2010), “Refugees and space in urban areas in Malaysia”Forced Migration Review, 34

Narayan, Sadeeka (2008), Mission Report: Urban Refugees & Asylum Seekers: Access to Public Health & HIV/AIDS Services, UNHCR Bujumbura

Nyce, Sahre (2010), “ATM cash assistance: does it work?”, Forced Migration Review, 34. www.fmreview.org/urban-displacement/FMR34/42-43.pdf

Nyaoro, Dulo (2010), Policing with prejudice: how policing exacerbates poverty among urban refugees”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Volume 14, Issue 1, 2010.

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Obi, Naoko & Jeff Crisp (2000), Evaluation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas: A case study review of New Delhi, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR.

Obi, Naoko & Jeff Crisp (2001), Evaluation of the implementation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR.

Offer, Joanne (2009), Helping refugee women help themselves in Nairobi, AlertNet, March 5, 2009.

Offer, Joanne (2010), The daily struggles of refugee life in Nairobi, International Rescue Committee.

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Pantuliano, Sara , Margie Buchanan-Smith, Paul Murphy & Irina Mosel (2008), The long road home: Opportunities and obstacles to the reintegration of IDPs and refugees returning to Southern Sudan and the Three Areas. Report of Phase II Conflict, urbanisation and land, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute.

Pantuliano, Sara, Munzoul Assal & Butheina A. Elnaiem (2011), City limits: urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan – Khartoum case study, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute.

Pantuliano, Sara, Margie Buchanan-Smith, Vicki Metcalfe, Sara Pavanello and Ellen Martin (2011), City limits: urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan – Synthesis Report, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

Pavanello, Sara and Simone Haysom (2012), Sanctuary in the City? Urban displacement and vulnerability in Amman, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

Pangilinan, Christian (2012), Implementing a Revised Refugee Policy for Urban Refugees in Tanzania

Parker, Alison (2002), Hidden in Plain View: Refugees Living Without Protection In Nairobi and Kampala, Human Rights Watch.

Pavanello, Sara, Samir Elhawary & Sara Pantuliano (2010), Hidden and Exposed: Urban Refugees in Nairobi, Kenya, HPG Working Paper, Overseas Development Institute. See also, accompanying video.

Pavanello, Sara (2011),Urbanization in Sudan: An Overview of International Engagement

Pavanello, Sara & Simone Haysom (2012), Sanctuary in the City? Urban Displacement and Vulnerability in Amman, HPG Working Paper, Overseas Development Institute.

Pavanello, Sara & Victoria Metcalfe with Ellen Martin (2012), Survival in the city: youth, displacement and violence in urban settings, HPG Policy Briefs 44, Overseas Development Institute

Pedersen, Line (2008), Assessment Report and Livelihoods Strategy for Urban Refugees in Malaysia. UNHCR, OSTS.

Pittaway, Eileen (2010), Making Mainstreaming a Reality – Gender and the UNHCR Policy on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas. A Refugee Perspective. Centre for Refugee Research, University of New South Wales.

Porter, Gina, Kate Hampshire, Peter Kyei, Michael Adjaloo, George Rapoo & Kate Kilpatrick (2008), “Linkages between Livelihood Opportunities and Refugee–Host Relations: Learning from the Experiences of Liberian Camp-based Refugees in Ghana”, Journal of Refugee Studies, 21(2):230 – 252.

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Reftsie, Hilde (2008), IDPs redefined – Participatory Action Research with urban IDPs in Uganda, Master’s Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

Reftsie, Hilde, Chris Dolan & Moses Chrispus Okello (2010), “Urban IDPs in Uganda: victims of institutional convenience”Forced Migration Review, 34.

Reftsie, Hilde & Cathrine Brun (2011), “Towards Transformative Participation: Collaborative Research with ‘Urban IDPs’ in Uganda”, Journal of Refugee Studies.

Refugee Consortium of Kenya (2005), Self Settled Refugees in Nairobi: A Close Look at their Coping Strategies.

Refugee Council USA, Urban Displacement in Sub Saharian Africa

Refugee Law Project (2005), A Drop in the Ocean: Assistance and Protection for Forced Migrants in Kampala,

Working Paper 16, Refugee Law Project, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, Kampala

Refugee Law Project (2007). What about us? The exclusion of urban IDPs from Uganda’s IDP related policies and interventions. Kampala, Uganda

Refugee Law Project (March 2008), A Special Bulletin on Urban IDPs, Refugee Law Project, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, Kampala

Refugee Law Project (July 2008), A Special Bulletin on Urban IDPs. No. 2, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, Kampala

Refugee Law Project (October 2008), A Special Bulletin on Urban IDPs No. 3Faculty of Law, Makerere University, Kampala

Refugee Watch Online (2010), Refugee Urbanisation: Protection Challenges and Emerging Opportunities

Refugee Watch Online (2011), Community Based Approach to Refugee Protection: UNHCR’s Experience in New Delhi

Refugees International (2011), Urban Refugees: Access to Education, (video)

Riiskjaer, Maria (2011), The way to San José: A review of the implementation of UNHCR’s urban refugee

policy in Costa Rica, UNHCR.

Robinson, Euan (2012), Urbanisation – the refugee game-changer, International Rescue Committee.

Rosenberg , Tina (2011), “Beyond Refugee Camps, a Better Way”,New York Times, September 6, 2011.

Li Rosi, Angela, M. Formisano and L. Jandrijasevic (2011), Lives in limbo: A review of the implementation of UNHCR‟s urban refugee policy in Tajikistan, UNHCR.

Rothing, Jacob & Marco Romero (2008), “Measuring the enjoyment of rights in Colombia”Forced Migration Review, 30.

RSDWatch (2005), Toward a rights-based urban policy

S

Salih, Assad Khalid (2006), Sudanese Demonstration in Cairo: Different Stands and Different Opinions,Forced Migration and Refugee Studies Program Working Paper No.5, American University in Cairo.

Schütte, Stefan & Brandy B. Bauer (2007), Legalise informal settlements to give poor families the right to demand basic services ,Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Setchell, Charles A. & Caroline N. Luther (2009), Kabul, Afghanistan: a case study in responding to urban displacement, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, issue 45, Dec. 2009

Singh, Namrita & Courtland Robinson (2010), “Support systems among urban IDPs in Georgia”, Forced Migration Review, 34.

Simon-Thomas, Acolia (1978) Refugee welfare in a city: a reflection on problems encountered by urban refugees

Sommers, Marc (1999), “Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania”Forced Migration Review 22.

Sommers, Marc (2001) Fear in Bongoland: Burundi Refugees in Urban Tanzania. New York: Berghahn Books.

Sommers, Marc (2000), On the Margins, in the Mainstream: Urban Refugees in Africa, Occasional Paper #37, Humanitarian Action: Social Sciences connections

Sperl, Stefan (2001), Evaluation of UNHCR’s policy on refugees in urban areas: A case study review of Cairo, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR.

Spiegel, Paul (2010), “Urban refugee health: meeting the challenges”, Forced Migration Review, 34.

Strand, Arne, Astri Suhrke & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2004), Afghan Refugees in Iran: From Refugee Emergency to Migration Management, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo

Strandberg, Anna (2009) Urban Refugees’ Right to Work: Livelihood Options and Implications for Protection, UNHCR Operational Solutions and Transition Section (OSTS) – Livelihoods Unit.

Sylvester, Abigail J (2011), Beyond Making Ends Meet: Urban Refugees and MicrofinanceWomen’s Refugee Commission (2011).

T

Tibaijuka, Anna (2010), “Adapting to urban displacement”, Forced Migration Review, 34.

Tufts University (2012), Refugee Livelihood in Urban Areas: identifying program opportunities, Case study Ecuador

Tufts University (2012), Refugee Livelihood in Urban Areas: identifying program opportunities, Case study Cairo

U

UNHCR (2007), Revision of UNHCR Policy on Urban Refugees. Document comparison – urban refugee policy.

UNHCR Branch Office for Kenya (2007), The Nairobi Refugee Program 2005-2007:Working with partner agencies and refugee communities to strengthen urban refugee protection

UNHCR (2009),  Urban Reintegration Desk Review: Afghanistan Case Study

UNHCR (2009), Designing appropriate interventions in urban settings

UNHCR (September 2009) UNHCR policy on refugee protection and solutions in urban area

UNHCR (December 2009), Refugee Education in Urban SettingsCase Studies from Nairobi – Kampala – Amman – DamascusOperational Solutions and Transition Section

UNHCR (December 2009), After fleeing rural massacre, former tobacco farmer sells coffee in the city.

UNHCR (December 2009), Urban refugee women teach themselves knitting – and self-confidence

UNHCR (December 2009), Urban refugees struggle to make ends meet in South Africa

UNHCR (December 2009) Responding to a growing challenge – protecting refugee in towns and cities

UNHCR (December 2009), Africa on the front line as more refugees flock to cities

UNHCR (December 2009), Protecting refugees in towns and cities across the Middle East – innovative operations but no durable solution in sight

UNHCR (December 2009), Protecting refugees in towns and cities across Asia

UNHCR (January 2010), Displaced Colombians turn an unwanted corner of a major coastal port into a decent home

UNHCR (February 2010), Afghan returnees facing problems in home districts seek safety in Kabul

area

UNHCR (March 2010), Informal Summary: Third High Commissioner’s Dialogue on Protection Challenges: Theme Challenges for Persons of Concern in Urban Settings.

UNHCR (2011) Ensuring Access to Health Care. Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas.

UNHCR (2011), Promoting Livelihoods and Self-reliance: Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas.

UNHCR (2011), Refugee education in urban settings

UNHCR (2012), “Displacement and Urbanization”, chapter six in State of the World’s Refugees: In Search of Solidarity

U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) (2012), PRM Principles for Refugee Protection in Urban Areas

W

De Waal, Alex (2009), Do Darfur’s IDPs Have an Urban Future?

Wagacha, John Burton & John Guiney (2008), “The Plight of Urban Refugees in Nairobi, Kenya”, chapter five in David Hollenbach, Refugee Rights: Ethics, Advocacy, and Africa, Georgetown University Press: 92-101.

Wali, Jawad (2011), Research Study on IDPs in Urban Settings: Afghanistan, UNHCR & World Bank.

Westin, Charles & Niklas Westin (2008), Projections of Urban Development, IMISCOE Working Paper No. 25, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations, Stockholm University

Women’s Refugee Commission (2008), Earning Money/Staying Safe: The Links Between Making a Living and Sexual Violence for Refugee Women in Cairo.

Women’s Refugee Commission (2008), Iraqi refugee women and girls in Jordan: Few Options for Rape Survivors

Woodburn, Ursula (2007), IDPs in Gulu Municipality: Gender and Livelihoods, MsC thesis, University of Antwerp

Wyrzykowski, Paulina & Benard Okot Kasozi (2009), Violence, Exile, and Transitional Justice: Perspectives of Urban IDPs in Kampala, Beyond Juba Project.

Y

Yang, Jane (2012), In Kenya’s “little Mogadishu,” a precarious life for urban refugeesInternational Rescue Committee.

Z

El Zain, Mahmoud (2008),The political potential of displacement to urban areas: How has the “ethnic

discourse” transformed the culturally polarized milieu in the Sudan?”Peace & Conflict Review

Zetter, Roger & George Deikun (2010), “Meeting humanitarian challenges in urban areas”, Forced Migration Review, 34.

Note: This Selective Bibliography was prepared by Tim Morris, updated June 2013

Apologies for any inadvertent omissions. If you can suggest further references or have found errors, please email the author: tim@timmorris.info or contact@urban-refugees.org

– See more at: http://urban-refugees.org/documents/#sthash.n6mGjNhZ.dpuf


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